The nuclear-agreement reached following a marathon, could be the turning point to relations between Usa and Iran in a crucial moment for the Middle-East. The Ayatollah country has for decades revealed to be a tough rival to face up to but with whom Washington, nevertheless has had to come to grips with. Relations had become tense following the on the Uranium enrichment plan which had been launched by Mahmud Ahmadinejad. Keeping the Us administration on the tip of its toes, especially the Republican administration, had been the risk of an atomic arms race on the part of the Teheran regime, a sword of Damocle suspended over Israel which should have disrupted the equilibriums in a hot country like Israel. It is of no pure coincidence then that the protests against the agreement could only come from Bibi Netanyahu. The Israeli Premier has again felt himself to be betrayed by Barack Obama; relations between the two had never really been rosy and became cool when TelAviv, in July 2014, had decided to launch a vast operation in the Gaza Strip with the objective of reducing the military capacity of Hamas and avenging the killing of three Israeli teenagers.
The nuclear agreement anyway, between Usa and Iran, represents a significant cooling down of relations and the outcome of a tedious path. Diplomatic relations between the two countries became tense with the coup d’etat in 1953, which was regarded as being the ‘original sin’ of the United States who, together with the United Kingdom, supported the plan to dismiss the democratically-elected Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh in order to replace him with the monarchy of the Shah. Mossadegh had been kicked out because he wanted to nationalise iranian petrol, a re source available in that moment only for the Anglo-Iranian Oil Co., today BP. In this framework, a few years after, Washington was to sign an agreement of cooperation with Teheran in the civil nuclear field . The agreement was to lay the foundations for the Iranian atomic programme which prescribed American tecnica assistance and the handing over of eriche Uranium for his plants. The equilibrium achieved underwent a shock in 1979, when the ongoing revolution triggered by the left-wing forces and soon taken up by the Islamists put an end to the Shah’s regime, who was accused of corruption.
He new Iranian authorities tore the agreement with the Usa on the construction of reactors. In the following November, some students occupied the US embassy and held some American citizens hostage for 444 days. But the real crisis in relations between the two states starte in 1980 when the US administration decided to support the bloody war conducted by the Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein against Iran. A bloodbath that lasted 8 years, during which, the lord of Baghdad did not hesitate to deploy chemical arms to destroy his enenmy. Another fundamental passage , was the attack in 1983, against some Marines in Beirut, when 241 people were killed. The attack was blamed on Hezbollah shiites, supported by Iran; in retaliation, President Ronal Reagan, included the Islamic Republic in the ‘Black-list’ of countries sponsoring terrorism. Between the end of the 80’s and beginning of the 90’s, ties became oll the more tense and the risk of a military confrontation was very high. Suffice to think of the aeroplane tragedy with Iranian passengers onboard, shot down by the USS war-ship Vincennes, a trajedy that cost the lives of 290 innocent people.
The possibility of opening up dialogue arrived in 1997 with the election of the reformist president Mohammad Khatami. In an interview with Cnn, the newly elected Head of State invited Washington to “take down the wall of mistrust” between the two countries. While a few years later, the former Secretary of State Madeline Albright, acknowledged damage incurred on the political development of Iran, caused by the coup in 1953. A major awareness that nevertheless di dot ease the complete breach of relations. So much so that in 2003 George W. Bush was to again includeTeheran as being amongst “the Axis of evil” together with Iraq and North Korea, longtime enemiesof the United States. In 2005 the conservative Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was elected president of Iran and imposes a strong anti-American and anti-Israeli influence over his government. The new presidenti s a fervent Il nuovo presidente è un fervente Holocaust denier and hopes i the destruction of Tel Aviv. It is during this phase that the debate over the nuclear issue becomes more crucial. For months, there was talk of a possible American intervention in Syria with the purpose of weakenig Iran. With Obama and the new president Rouhani, the atmosphere is less tense and an open dialogue has come back to the fore. A further step towards peace.
Translation provided by Marina Stronati